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支氣管炎及肺炎 Bronchitis and Pneumonia

 - 由Grace Tom姊妹(已退休的註冊護士)撰寫  

 - Written by Grace Tom (Retired RN) 

 

 

 

 

文章使用中英對照  Article is in both Chinese & English


什麼是支氣管炎及肺炎 ?

支氣管炎-起因

  • 吸入含有化學刺激物體的空氣-氣體如煤氣及其他染污的空氣
  • 曾沒有治好的嚴重感冒可會導致支氣管炎

症狀

  • 咳嗽時有黃綠色的濃痰
  • 由於頻頻咳嗽引致胸骨痛
  • 發燒
  • 週身疲倦

肺炎起因

  • 通常發生在冬天及春天
  • 致感染菌-肺炎球菌
  • 長期使用壓制免疫藥物, 抗血癌藥及腎上腺皮層藥

症狀

  • 發燒(高温度) 華氏104-106 度
  • 發高燒可導致發冷顫
  • 由於劇烈的胸痛而引致不能深呼吸
  • 氣喘
  • 脈膊快速
  • 呼吸緊速
  • 呼吸困難
  • 臉部發紅赤熱
  • 嚴重時,口脣及指甲決氧氣可變紫藍色
  • 不安定
  • 嚴重時-神智不清

治療

  1. 抗生素 -口服或血管注射
  2. 在牀休息, 如氣速便須要在牀坐起來
  3. 有須要時, 要用氧氣,可幫助呼吸通順
  4. 有痛時服止痛藥, 有咳可服止咳藥, 有高體温服降體温藥及舒緩肌肉痛
  5. 飲大量流質可保持有足夠的水份及可鬆化痰液
  6. 營養-提供進食易消化食物

 

What is Bronchitis and Pneumonia?

Bronchitis- causes

  • Inhalation of air and chemical irritants-like gas, or other air contaminants
  • Has severe flu not treated, may lead to bronchitis

Signs and symptoms

  • Cough with purulent sputum
  • Sternal soreness from frequent cough
  • Fever
  • General malaise

Pneumonia-causes

  • Most prevalent during winter and spring
  • Infective agent-Pneumococci
  • Prolonged use of immune-suppressive drugs, anti-leukemic drugs and corticosteroids

Signs and symptoms

  • Fever( High temperature ) 104 to 106 degrees F
  • High fever can lead to chills and rigor
  • Sharp pain in the chest prevent one from taking deep breath
  • Short of breath
  • Rapid pulse
  • Rapid respiration
  • Dyspnoea
  • Flushed face
  • Severe stage,cyanotic lips and nails
  • Restless
  • Delirium(severe stage)

Treatment

  1. Antibiotics –oral or intravenous
  2. Bed rest, if dysnoeic, sit up in bed
  3. Use oxygen when needed to help to breathe better
  4. Analgesics for pain, anti-tussive medication to alleviate cough, anti-pyretics for elevated temperature and to relieve muscular pain
  5. Drink plenty of fluid to maintain hydration and to loosen sputum
  6. Nutrition-soft and easy digestible food is recommended

預防勝於治療  wink

Prevention is better than cure  wink

 

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